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Ben-Yehuda's 2001 work ("Betrayals and Treason Violations of Trust and Loyalty" Westview Press) framed all forms of betrayals and treason under a unifying analytical framework using loyalty, trust and moral boundaries as explanatory tools.An act of betrayal creates a constellation of negative behaviours, thoughts, and feelings in both its victims and its perpetrators. The victims exhibit anger and confusion, and demand atonement from the perpetrator; who in turn may experience guilt or shame, and exhibit remorse.
It has also been suggested that the term was inspired by the practice of 18th-century British thief taker and criminal Jonathan Wild, who kept a ledger of his transactions and is said to have placed two crosses by the names of persons who had cheated him in some way.
Most adults living in western democracies place trust in the state of which they are a citizen.
When this trust is betrayed, at its worst, the individual can suffer psychological betrayal trauma.
Betrayal blindness is the unawareness, not-knowing, and forgetting exhibited by people towards betrayal.
This betrayal blindness may extend to betrayals that are not considered traditional traumas, such as adultery, and inequities. Perpetrators, and witnesses may also display betrayal blindness in order to preserve personal relationships, their relationships with institutions, and social systems upon which they depend.
Fear and anger are the two sides to the fight-or-flight response, and as such are our strongest and most basic psychological emotions.
Pure political betrayal trauma can be caused by situations such as wrongful arrest and conviction by the legal system of a western democracy; or by discrimination, bullying or other serious mistreatment by a state institution or powerful figure within the state.Betrayal is the breaking or violation of a presumptive contract, trust, or confidence by that produces moral and psychological conflict within a relationship amongst individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations.Often betrayal is the act of supporting a rival group, or it is a complete break from previously decided upon or presumed norms by one party from the others.The term "Institutional Betrayal" refers to wrongdoings perpetrated by an institution upon individual’s dependent on that institution.This includes failure to prevent or respond supportively to wrongdoings by individuals (e.g.AI researcher Selmer Bringsjord made betrayal the core of a storytelling program BRUTUS.